His score of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is 14, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is 20. positive. The content of the CSF protein of two patients increased slightly. The tumor marker of all the patients was normal, but capitate myxoma was detected in the combined pancreas duct of one patient. Gamma globulin and hormone treatments were administered to nine patients. Of these patients, six received a combination of antiepileptic drugs. The clinical symptoms of all the patients improved. Conclusion LGI1 LE is an autoimmune encephalitis whose clinical manifestations are memory deterioration, FBDS, epileptic seizure, mental disorders, and hyponatremia. Brain MRI shows that this autoimmune disease mainly involves the mediotemporal lobe and the hippocampus. This condition can also be manifested with other autoimmune encephalitis cases but can be rarely associated with tumors. After patients with LGI1 LE receive gamma globulin and hormone treatments, their clinical prognosis is good. wave in the left temporal lobeBoth LGI1 antibody (+)NormalMethylprednisolone, immune globulin, oxcarbazepineSymptoms improvedMayasi et al30M626 monthsSleeplessness, cognitive function declining, mental symptom (paranoia), complex partial seizure, hyponatremiaSignal in temporal lobe increasedBackground (diffusibly slow wave)Serum LGI1 antibody (+), CSF protein 50 mg/dLNormalGamma globulinSymptoms improvedMesselmani et al31M593 monthsSleeplessness, short-term memory disturbance, disorientation, visual hallucination, FBDS, hyponatremia, myoclonusNormal in brain MRI; chest CT showed Mouse monoclonal to CD235.TBR2 monoclonal reactes with CD235, Glycophorins A, which is major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane. Glycophorins A is a transmembrane dimeric complex of 31 kDa with caboxyterminal ends extending into the cytoplasm of red cells. CD235 antigen is expressed on human red blood cells, normoblasts and erythroid precursor cells. It is also found on erythroid leukemias and some megakaryoblastic leukemias. This antobody is useful in studies of human erythroid-lineage cell development capitate myxoma in pancreas ductBackground (chaotically slow wave), a periodically synchronous dischargeSerum LGI1 antibody (+)NormalCorrection of hyponatremia, immune globulin, diazepam, valproate, lamotrigineSymptoms improvedSzots et al32M504 yearsCognitive disorder, anxiety, complex partial seizure, hyponatremiaBilateral hippocampus atrophy, high T2/FLAIRSeizure activity in the right temporal regionSerum LGI1 antibody (+)NormalCarbamazepineSymptoms improvedSzots et al32M482 yearsSubacute memory function disorder, FBDS, hyponatremiaNormalEpilepsy Guacetisal in the right temporal regionSerum LGI1 antibody (+)NormalAntiepileptic medicationSymptoms improvedWang et al33F301 monthSubacute memory function disorderHigh signal in bilateral medial temporal lobe and hippocampusSlow wave, Guacetisal no discharge in the temporal regionSerum LGI1 antibody (+)NormalGamma globulinSymptoms improved, abnormal MRI signal disappearedKrastinova et al34M729 monthsComplex partial seizure, depression, FBDS, disorientationHigh signal in medial temporal lobe, cortex of cerebellar tonsil, and insulaSlow waveSerum LGI1 antibody (+)NormalMethylprednisolone, immune globulinSymptoms improved Open in a separate window Note: C indicates not reported. Abbreviations: LE, limbic encephalitis; M, male; F, female; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; FBDS, faciobrachial dystonic seizures; FLAIR, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery. Case report The patient was a 69-year-old male teacher who manifested an untreated hypothyroidism upon physical examination in May 2013. In July 2013, he exhibited a paroxysmal involuntary twitch of the upper limbs and the Guacetisal right face. This condition was relieved within several seconds but was observed at a frequency of 10 times/day. However, the patient remained untreated. In the beginning of October, he experienced memory loss and failed to identify his home in some instances. On October 20, he lost consciousness and suffered from involuntary eye rolling, trismus, foaming at the mouth, and limb stretching without gatism. These symptoms lasted 5 min until they subsided. No generalized tonicCclonic seizure was noted after treatment with oral levetiracetam and phenobarbital; however, the patient had recurring symptoms of wild eyes, deviated mouth, getting terrified after sitting up forcedly and then relieved in a few seconds, and significant memory loss. As such, he was sent to a hospital. No apparent positive signs were found after he completed a nervous system examination. Brain MRI Guacetisal (Figures 1 and ?and2)2) showed an abnormal signal (no enhancement) in the bilateral hippocampus region. Electroencephalogram revealed spiked and slow waves in the right temporal lobe. Thyroid function tests indicated 3.61 pmol/L T3, 15.08 pmol/L T4, 7.750 mIU/L thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), 20.33 IU/mL anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO), 763.10 IU/mL anti-thyroglobulin (TG), 130.4 mmol/L serum sodium, and 94.1 mmol/L serum chloride. The levels Guacetisal of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), protein, immunoglobulin, antinuclear antibody, rheumatoid factors, and tumor markers were in normal ranges. The patient was treated with Euthyrox (levothyroxine), levetiracetam, and dexamethasone. As.