SEM results showed that Schwann cells in the hypoxia-preconditioning group had good mitochondrial membrane integrity, mitochondrial cristae swelling without disintegration, whereas Schwann cells in the hypoxia group had significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, incomplete mitochondrial membranes, and disintegration of the mitochondrial cristae. of each of these groups of cells was observed by electron microscopy. In addition, flow cytometry was used to measure changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining was used to detect apoptosis, and Western blots were used to detect the expression of Bcl-2/Bax. Fluorescence microscopic observations of axonal growth in NG-108 cells under hypoxic conditions were also performed. Results The hypoxia-preconditioning group maintained mitochondrial cell membrane and crista integrity, and these cells exhibited less edema than the hypoxia group. In addition, the cells in the hypoxia-preconditioning group were found to be in early stages of apoptosis, whereas cells from the hypoxia group were in the later stages of apoptosis. The hypoxia-preconditioning Prednisolone acetate (Omnipred) group also had higher levels of Bcl-2/Bax expression and longer NG-108 cell axons than were observed in the hypoxia group. Conclusion Hypoxic preconditioning can improve the physiological state of Schwann cells in a severe hypoxia environment and improve the ability to promote neurite outgrowth. Introduction Schwann cells are an important part of the peripheral nerve myelin sheath, and they play an essential role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Schwann cells can release neurotrophic factors to promote the Prednisolone acetate (Omnipred) regeneration of peripheral nerves, Col4a3 and they can guide axonal regeneration in the direction of the Bands of Bngner [1,2]. However, the separation and culturing of Schwann cells requires peripheral nerve tissue as a raw material, which can be limited. Moreover, Schwann cells have a long growth cycle and are hard to amplify. Therefore, Prednisolone acetate (Omnipred) they are hard to use for medical applications. Bone marrow stem cells are a type of pluripotent cell derived from the mesoderm that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes and skeletal myoblasts . Recently, several studies possess reported that bone marrow stem cells can differentiate into Schwann cells. In vitro studies have shown that these induced Schwann cells not only possess Schwann cell phenotypes, but also that they can promote axonal growth [4,5]. However, all of these studies have been performed at standard in vitro oxygen concentrations. Prednisolone acetate (Omnipred) The oxygen concentration in vivo is definitely approximately 0.4% , which is significantly lower than the 21% oxygen concentration that is conventionally used in vitro. Prednisolone acetate (Omnipred) In fact, the majority of seed cells pass away within the 1st 24 hours in vivo, an effect that is primarily due to hypoxia-induced seed cell apoptosis . Geng  injected bone marrow stem cells into mice with ventricular myocardial infarctions and observed that 99% of the bone marrow stem cells were lifeless by 4 days later on. This result demonstrates that these stem cells are highly susceptible to ischemia and hypoxia. Based on this result, many studies possess proposed methods to increase the survival of seed cells under hypoxia [9,10]. Follmar et al.  reported that when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfected with the HO-1 gene were transplanted into mice that experienced experienced an acute myocardial infarction, by 7 days later on, the survival rate of the transplanted cells in the experimental group was 3 times higher than in settings. However, transgenic technology is currently complex, expensive, and not widely used. Greijer and vehicle der Wall  shown that the severity of hypoxia influences the level of cell apoptosis vs. survival during hypoxia. For example, 0.5% O2 was shown to initiate apoptosis in some cells. To prevent the hypoxia-induced build up of genetic mutations, there is a crucial balance between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors. Hypoxia-inducible element-1 (HIF-1) takes on an important role.